paralellism (對稱構句) 的觀念

1. Parallelism (對稱構句)屬於style(文體)或rhetoric(修辭)的一部分。Parallelism (對稱構句)主要指句子構句時必須要注意對稱,例如在列舉一些事物當例子時,如果第一個例子是名詞,第二個以後的例子最好也是名詞; 如果第一個例子是不定詞片語,第二個以後的例子最好也是不定詞片語。

錯誤 Ex. Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed.
正確 Ex. Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method.

註: 第二句比第一句的結構更對稱。都是用 be taught by...

錯誤 Ex. My English conversation class is made up of Chinese, Spaniards, and some are from Bosnia.
正確 Ex. My English conversation class is made up of Chinese, Spaniards, and Bosnians.

錯誤 Ex. The president promises to reform health care, preserve social security, and a balanced budget.
正確 Ex. The president promises to reform health care, preserve social security, and balance the budget.

 

2. Parallelism (對稱構句)在對等連接詞(FANBOYS七個連接詞)以及both...and, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also..., rather thancorrelative expressionsfirst, second, third等列舉用詞,以及比較級用法(comparisons)more than, more...than, better than等時最常使用。

錯誤 Ex. It was both a long ceremony and very tedious.
正確 Ex. The ceremony was both long and tedious.

錯誤 Ex. The teacher wanted to know which country we came from and our future goals.
正確 Ex. The teacher wanted to know which country we came from and what our future goals were.

錯誤 Ex. The language skills of the students in the evening classes are the same as the day classes.
正確 Ex. The language skills of the students in the evening classes are the same as the language skills of the students in the day classes.

註: 此處 the language skills 可以用those來代替: The language skills of the students in the evening classes are the same as those of the students in the day classes.

錯誤 Ex. The schools in the suburbs are better than the inner city.
正確 Ex. The schools in the suburbs are better than the schools in the inner city.

錯誤 Ex. A time not for words, but action.
正確 Ex. A time not for words, but for action.

錯誤 Ex. Either you must grant his request or incur his ill will.
正確 Ex. You must either grant his request or incur his ill will.

錯誤 Ex. My objections are, first, the injustice of the measure; second, that it is unconstitutional.
正確 Ex. My objections are, first, that the measure is unjust; second, that it is unconstitutional.

錯誤 Ex. My income is smaller than my wife.
正確 Ex. My income is smaller than my wife's.

註: my wife'smy wife's income.

錯誤 Ex. He spoke more of his term as ambassador than being president.
正確 Ex. He spoke more of being ambassador than of being president.

再舉出一些parallelism的例句如下:

Ex. The states regulate the noise created by motor vehicles but not by commercial aircraft.

Ex. Pesticides cannot be sold if they have an adverse effect on humans, on animal life, or on the environment.

Ex. Many people are neither concerned about pollutants nor worried about their future impact.

Ex. At the present time, air pollution is controlled through laws passed not only to reduce the pollutants at their sources but also to set up acceptable standards of air quality.

Ex. She reacted by laughing rather than by getting upset.


     

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